Posted on Oct 14, 2019, 5 p.m.
A study published in JAMA has revealed some insight into how 10 specific foods and nutrients may affect the risk of dying from cardiometabolic mortality; consuming suboptimal levels was associated with over 45% of deaths due to heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes.
A risk assessment model was developed which combines and analyzed data from three sources: NHANES study data; studies and clinical trials to estimate associations for the 10 dietary factors with CMD; and estimated deaths due to CMD in 2012 from the National Center for Health Statistics.
Optimal consumption levels for dietary factors were consistent with the majority of dietary guidelines and with the lowest disease risk in trials. There were 702,308 CMD deaths within American in 2012, 45.4% of these were estimated to be associated with suboptimal inakes of the 10 foods and nutrients (fruits, vegetables, nuts/seeds, whole grains, unprocessed red meat, processed meats, sugar sweetened beverages, polyunsaturated fats, seafood omega-3 fats, and sodium).
Not consuming enough of the following foods and nutrients was estimated to contribute to the corresponding percentage of CMD deaths: nuts and seeds 8.5%, seafood based omega-3 fats 7.8%, vegetables 7.6%, fruits 7.5%, whole grains 5.9%, and polyunsaturated fats in place of saturated fats or carbs 2.3%.
Consuming too much of the following foods and nutrients was estimated to contribute to the corresponding percentage of CMD deaths: sodium 9.5%, processed meat 8.2%, sugar sweetened beverages 7.4%, amd unprocessed red meat 0.4%.
Cause and effect could not be determined by this study as it only used a comparative risk model, nor can it prove that changing intake of any of these foods and nutrients being able to reduce the risk of CMD disease. Additionally, the particular health effect of each food/nutrient on any individual may vary and could be affected by a number of factors such as age, sex, genetics, other dietary habits, and level of physical activity.
Regardless of limitations to the study it is still safe to say that most everyone has room for improvement in their diet, try eating more or less of these items studied:
Nuts and seeds = one ounce per day
Seafood = 12 ounces per week
Vegetables = 5 servings per day (1 serving is 1 cup raw or ½ cooked)
Fruits = 4 servings per day (1 serving is 1 medium fresh fruit)
Whole grains = 4 servings per day (1 serving is 1 slice bread or ½ cup cooked grains)
Sodium = less than 2,000 milligrams per day
Processed meats = Zero servings per day
Sweetened Beverage = Zero servings per day (replace with water infused with fruit/veggies)
Red meat = less than 4 ounces per week
Replace at least 11% of calories from saturated fats or carbohydrates with calories from polyunsaturated fats (equivalent of around 2 tablespoons a day for an 1,800 calorie diet)
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This article is not intended to provide medical diagnosis, advice, treatment, or endorsement.