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Genes driving age-related blood cell mutations uncovered

2 weeks, 5 days ago

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Posted on May 28, 2024, 5 p.m.

New research identifies a larger pool of genes involved in clonal haematopoiesis than previously thought, and their implications for disease and diagnostic tests.

Scientists have discovered 17 additional genes that drive the abnormal overgrowth of mutated blood cells as we age. The findings, published in Nature Genetics, provide a more complete view of the genetic factors behind clonal haematopoiesis -- a process associated with aging and linked to increased risks of blood cancers.

Researchers from the Wellcome Sanger Institute, Calico Life Sciences, California, and the University of Cambridge analysed sequencing data from over 200,000 individuals in the UK Biobank cohort. They searched for genes showing signals of "positive selection" -- where mutations allow mutant cell populations to greatly expand over time.

The 17 newly discovered genes were found to have similar disease associations as previously known clonal haematopoiesis mutations, highlighting their clinical significance in driving the accumulation of mutant blood cell clones.

By uncovering these previously unrecognised genetic drivers, the research opens new avenues for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying clonal haematopoiesis and its role in disease development, leading to new ways to promote healthier aging. Additionally, it could lead to better genetic tests that help identify the risks of blood cancers and cardiovascular diseases.

As we age, our cells accumulate random genetic mutations. Some of these mutations can provide a competitive growth advantage, allowing mutant cells to multiply and outnumber the healthy cells, forming large 'clones' or populations of identical mutant cells. When this positive selection happens in blood stem cells, it is called clonal haematopoiesis. This process is associated with blood cancers, cardiovascular disease and other age-related diseases.

While previous studies have identified around 70 genes linked to clonal haematopoiesis, most cases observed recently have not involved mutations in any of these known driver genes. This suggests the involvement of additional genetic factors.

Researchers set out to map characteristic patterns of positive selection in the aging blood system, leveraging whole exome sequencing data from over 200,000 individuals in the UK Biobank cohort. They identified 17 genes driving the accumulation of mutant cell clones in our blood, beyond the known set of drivers.

Incorporating mutations in these newly identified genes increased the prevalence of clonal haematopoiesis by 18 percent in the UK Biobank cohort, underscoring their impact on aging.

Dr Michael Spencer Chapman, co-first author of the study at the Wellcome Sanger Institute, said: "While existing genetic tests have been valuable for early disease detection, our findings suggest there are opportunities to improve them further. By incorporating these 17 additional genes linked to clonal haematopoiesis, we can enhance genetic testing methods to better identify risks of associated blood cancers and cardiovascular diseases."

Nick Bernstein, co-first author of the study, formerly at Calico Life Sciences, California and now based at NewLimit, said: "With our newly identified genes, we now have a more complete picture to explore strategies for delaying or reversing abnormal mutant cell overgrowths in blood to promote healthier aging. These genes seem to affect inflammation and immunity, important factors in conditions like heart disease and strokes. While interventions based on this research are still a long way off, it opens up possibilities for future treatments across a wide range of diseases."

Dr Jyoti Nangalia, senior author of the study from the Wellcome Sanger Institute and the Wellcome-MRC Cambridge Stem Cell Institute at the University of Cambridge, said: "Our study reveals a much broader set of genes fuelling mutant blood cell clone accumulation with age, but this is only the beginning. Larger studies across diverse populations are needed to identify remaining driver genes and provide further insights into this process and disease links."

As with anything you read on the internet, this article should not be construed as medical advice; please talk to your doctor or primary care provider before changing your wellness routine. This article is not intended to provide a medical diagnosis, recommendation, treatment, or endorsement. These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. 

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References/Sources/Materials provided by:

This article was written by the Communications Team at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute

https://www.sanger.ac.uk/news_item/genes-driving-age-related-blood-cell-mutations-uncovered/

https://www.sanger.ac.uk/

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-024-01755-1

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9308779/

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