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FDA Approves First Extended-Release, Injectable Drug Regimen for Adults Living with HIV

1 month, 2 weeks ago

1167  0
Posted on Jan 22, 2021, 5 p.m.

The US FDA has approved Cabenuva (cabotegravir and rilpivirine, injectable formulation) as a complete regimen for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in adults to replace a current antiretroviral regimen in those who are virologically suppressed on a stable antiretroviral regimen with no history of treatment failure and with no known or suspected resistance to either cabotegravir or rilpivirine. This is the first FDA-approved injectable, complete regimen for HIV-infected adults that is administered once a month. 

The FDA also approved Vocabria (cabotegravir, tablet formulation), which should be taken in combination with oral rilpivirine (Edurant) for one month prior to starting treatment with Cabenuva to ensure the medications are well-tolerated before switching to the extended-release injectable formulation.

VOCABRIA is a human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) indicated in combination with EDURANT (rilpivirine) for short-term treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults who are virologically suppressed (HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies/mL) on a stable antiretroviral regimen with no history of treatment failure and with no known or suspected resistance to either cabotegravir or rilpivirine, for use as:

  • oral lead-in to assess the tolerability of cabotegravir prior to administration of CABENUVA (cabotegravir; rilpivirine) extended-release injectable suspensions.
  • oral therapy for patients who will miss planned injection dosing with CABENUVA

CABENUVA, a 2-drug co-packaged product of cabotegravir, a human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI), and rilpivirine, an HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), is indicated as a complete regimen for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults to replace the current antiretroviral regimen in those who are virologically suppressed (HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies per mL) on a stable antiretroviral regimen with no history of treatment failure and with no known or suspected resistance to either cabotegravir or rilpivirine.

“Currently, the standard of care for patients with HIV includes patients taking daily pills to adequately manage their condition. This approval will allow some patients the option of receiving once-monthly injections in lieu of a daily oral treatment regimen,” said John Farley, M.D., M.P.H., director of the Office of Infectious Diseases in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “Having this treatment available for some patients provides an alternative for managing this chronic condition.”

The safety and efficacy of Cabenuva were established through two randomized, open-label, controlled clinical trials in 1,182 HIV-infected adults who were virologically suppressed (HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies/milliliter) before initiation of treatment with Cabenuva. Patients in both trials continued to show virologic suppression at the conclusion of each study, and no clinically relevant change from baseline in CD4+ cell counts was observed. 

The most common adverse reactions with Cabenuva were injection site reactions, fever (pyrexia), fatigue, headache, musculoskeletal pain, nausea, sleep disorders, dizziness, and rash, observed in ≥2% of subjects. Cabenuva should not be used if there is a known previous hypersensitivity reaction to cabotegravir or rilpivirine, or in patients who are not virally suppressed (HIV-1 RNA greater than 50 copies/milliliter).

Summary of Clinical Studies:

The efficacy of CABENUVA has been evaluated in two Phase 3 randomized, multicenter, active-controlled, parallel-arm, open-label, non-inferiority trials:

  • Trial 201584 (FLAIR, [NCT02938520]), (n = 629): HIV-1–infected, antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naive subjects received a dolutegravir INSTI-containing regimen for 20 weeks (either dolutegravir/abacavir/lamivudine or dolutegravir plus 2 other NRTIs if subjects were HLA-B*5701 positive). Subjects who were virologically suppressed (HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies/mL, n = 566) were then randomized (1:1) to receive either a cabotegravir plus rilpivirine regimen or remain on the current antiretroviral regimen. Subjects randomized to receive cabotegravir plus rilpivirine initiated treatment with daily oral lead-in dosing with one 30-mg VOCABRIA (cabotegravir) tablet plus one 25-mg EDURANT (rilpivirine) tablet for at least 4 weeks followed by monthly injections with CABENUVA for an additional 44 weeks.
  • Trial 201585 (ATLAS, [NCT02951052]), (n = 616): HIV-1–infected, ART-experienced, virologically-suppressed (for at least 6 months; median prior treatment duration was 4.3 years) subjects (HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies/mL) were randomized and received either a cabotegravir plus rilpivirine regimen or remained on their current antiretroviral regimen. Subjects randomized to receive cabotegravir plus rilpivirine initiated treatment with daily oral lead-in dosing with one 30-mg VOCABRIA (cabotegravir) tablet plus one 25-mg EDURANT (rilpivirine) tablet for at least 4 weeks followed by monthly injections with CABENUVA for an additional 44 weeks.

The primary analysis was conducted after all subjects completed their Week 48 visit or discontinued the trial prematurely.

The primary endpoint of FLAIR and ATLAS was the proportion of subjects with plasma HIV-1 RNA greater than or equal to 50 copies/mL at Week 48.

In FLAIR the proportion of subjects with HIV-1 RNA > 50 copies/mL was 2% for each cabotegravir plus rilpivirine arm and the remained on current antiretroviral regimen arm [treatment difference -0.4% (95% CI: -2.8%, 2.1%). In ATLAS the proportion of subjects with HIV-1 RNA > 50 copies/mL was 2% for the cabotegravir plus rilpivirine arm and 1% for remained on current antiretroviral regimen arm [treatment difference -0.7% (95% CI: -1.2%, 2.5%).

Cabenuva and Vocabria were granted Fast Track and Priority Review designation by the FDA. 

The FDA granted the approval of Cabenuva and Vocabria to ViiV Healthcare.

As with anything you read on the internet, this article should not be construed as medical advice; please talk to your doctor or primary care provider before making any changes to your wellness routine.

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https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-first-extended-release-injectable-drug-regimen-adults-living-hiv?utm_medium=email&utm_source=govdelivery



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